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ARTHRITIS – Types, Symptoms and Treatment

OrthoHeal,4 June 2019 

 
At recent scenario people are suffering from joints pain they have no idea this symptoms are occur in Arthritis. Symptoms are like redness around joint, decrease range of motion, warmth, swelling, pain etc. Sometime mild pain are at on-set and gradually increase.
 
There are different type of  Arthritis occur in our body. Mainly two type of arthritis affect:
a) Osteoarthritis
b) Rheumatoid Arthritis
 
 
OSTEOARTHRITIS:
In this type of Arthritis, flexibility of the tissue at the end of bones wears down that means loses their flexibility. It’s very common disease in India and round the globe in recent time. 10 million cases have been noted related to Osteoarthritis per year in India.
Anatomical view of Osteoarthritis
Anatomical view of knee joint in Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis X- ray view of knee joint
Osteoarthritis X -ray view of knee joint
Osteoarthritis typically affects the weight- bearing joint such as knee, hip and back. It most commonly  a disease of elderly. More than 30% women have some degree of Osteoarthritis by the age of 65 years.
 
Osteoarthritis pain is typically made worse by prolonged activity n relieved by rest.  Stiffness is most common in the morning then decrease after working in daily activity. It returns after a period of inactivity. Osteoarthritis can cause a “crackling” noise when the affected joints moved, especially at the shoulder n knee joint. Some people are complaining pain in cold temperature, high humidity. It most commonly affects the hand , spine feet, weight-bearing joint, hip and knee.
 
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS:
Rheumatoid Arthritis is long term autoimmune disorder that primarily attack joints. It result in warm, swollen and painful joint. Most commonly affect wrist and hand joint. The cause of  Rheumatoid Arthritis is not specified. Sometimes, it’s occur due to genetic disorder. The underlying mechanism involves the body’s immune system attacking joints. This result into inflammation and thickening of the joint capsule. Most commonly occur at the small joints of the hand, feet and cervical spine but larger joint like knee joint and shoulder joint are also involved. Rheumatoid Arthritis typically manifest with the sign of inflammation with the affected joints became swollen, warm, painful, stiff particularly early in the morning on waking and following prolonged inactivity. The pain associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis are induced at the site of inflammation and classified as Nociceptive as opposed as Neuropathic.
Anatomical view of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Anatomical view of Rheumatoid  Arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis knee joint X -ray
Rheumatoid Arthritis knee joint X -ray

TEST/ INVESTIGATION REQUIRED :

1) Radiological examination :
-Reduced joint space : the space between knee joint constant through of life in the absence of osteoarthritis.

  • mJSW-minimum JOINT SPACE WIDTH APPROX : 5.8 mm(in Male) and 4.8 mm (in Female).

-Erosion of articular margins
-Subchondral cysts


2) Blood :
-Elevated ESR
-Low haemoglobin  value


3) Synovial fluid examination:


 METHOD OF TREATMENT :

1) Medical treatment : it consist of anti-rheumatic drugs.
    – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs)
    – disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs(DMARDs)


2) Orthopedic-treatment: treatment aim at prevention of deformity,preservation of joint function and rehabilitation.

   -it can be divided into two methods

    • non operative methods
    • operative methods

Non operative method consist following:
-Physiotherapy-this consist
 Heat therapy,joint mobilization exercises,muscle building exercises etc.


Occupational therapy :
it provided by occupational therapist they help patient cope with his occupational requirements in the most easy way.

ORTHOSIS
-it’s device which is used for support, align, improve function, reduce pain and immobilize the moment.
-Devices like braces, walking aid, compression sleeve also prescribe by Orthotist.

ORTHOSIS device like knee brace which is used for arthritic patient for
 -Pain relieving by transforming weight
 -Improve gait walking


Operative method consist:
-Surgical treatment.